UNICEF Cholera factsheet
- In UNICEF Cholera factsheet
- Mis à jour : 19 avril 2016
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OVERVIEW OF CHOLERA
Cholera was first reported in Chad in 1971. Since 1991, there have been large outbreaks between 1996 and 1998, in 2001, 2004, and between 2010 and 2011 (Fig. 1). Between 2004 and 2013, epidemiological surveillance reported 31,918 cases and 996 deaths (high case fatality rate ≈ 3.2%)1. Main outbreaks were reported in the regions bordering Cameroon, Niger and Nigeria: N’Djamena, Lac, Hadjer- Lamis, Chari-Baguirmi, Mayo-Kebbi Est and Mayo-Kebbi West. Onset of outbreaks generally varies between late March and late June (Fig. 3).
Border regions and districts are priority areas for prevention and response to outbreaks of cholera in general and in particular for cross-border alerts. Seasonality of cholera is known to occur in the Sahelian zone and humanitarian workers should be prepared in the months from March to May (Fig. 3). The importance of inter-epidemic periods should be emphasized when the response should focus on stopping cholera transmission. Sporadic cases and cholera foci during these periods represent a potential risk for further outbreaks that could restart later in the season.
A WASH study conducted in 2011 in the regions of Mayo-Kebbi-East, Mayo-Kebbi-West and Tandjile showed that most of the cases (50–90%) of cholera were concentrated in outlying rural districts of cities, town centres and large neighbouring villages where community dynamics is low5. The study recommends awareness campaigns, improved access to water (hand pump) and sanitation (Community Led Total Sanitation) in communities most vulnerable to cholera.
An anthropological study conducted in 2011 at the Chad-Cameroon border in the north part of the country gives elements of the perception of cholera and control activities by the population and the local authorities and helps refining the ways of intervention of governments and agencies6.